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Intermediate Accounting 6th edition Spiceland solutions manual and testbank

Intermediate Accounting 6th edition Spiceland solutions manual and testbank


Intermediate Accounting 6th edition Spiceland solutions manual and testbank

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Sample Chapter:

Chapter 1   Environment and Theoretical Structure of Financial Accounting

QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW OF KEY TOPICS

Question 1-1
Financial accounting is concerned with providing relevant financial information about various kinds of organizations to different types of external users.  The primary focus of financial accounting is on the financial information provided by profit-oriented companies to their present and potential investors and creditors.
Question 1-2
Resources are efficiently allocated if they are given to enterprises that will use them to provide goods and services desired by society and not to enterprises that will waste them.  The capital markets are the mechanism that fosters this efficient allocation of resources.
Question 1-3
Two extremely important variables that must be considered in any investment decision are the expected rate of return and the uncertainty or risk of that expected return.
Question 1-4
In the long run, a company will be able to provide investors and creditors with a rate of return only if it can generate a profit.  That is, it must be able to use the resources provided to it to generate cash receipts from selling a product or service that exceeds the cash disbursements necessary to provide that product or service.
Question 1-5
The primary objective of financial accounting is to provide investors and creditors with information that will help them make investment and credit decisions.
Question 1-6
Net operating cash flows are the difference between cash receipts and cash disbursements during a period of time from transactions related to providing goods and services to customers.  Net operating cash flows may not be a good indicator of future cash flows because, by ignoring uncompleted transactions, they may not match the accomplishments and sacrifices of the period.
Answers to Questions (continued)

Question 1-7
GAAP (generally accepted accounting principles) are a dynamic set of both broad and specific guidelines that a company should follow in measuring and reporting the information in their financial statements and related notes.  It is important that all companies follow GAAP so that investors can compare financial information across companies to make their resource allocation decisions.
Question 1-8
In 1934, Congress created the SEC and gave it the job of setting accounting and reporting standards for companies whose securities are publicly traded.  The SEC has retained the power, but has delegated the task to private sector bodies.  The current private sector body responsible for setting accounting standards is the FASB.
Question 1-9
Auditors are independent, professional accountants who examine financial statements to express an opinion.  The opinion reflects the auditors’ assessment of the statements' fairness, which is determined by the extent to which they are prepared in compliance with GAAP.  The auditor adds credibility to the financial statements, which increases the confidence of capital market participants relying on that information.
Question 1-10
On July 30, 2002, President Bush signed into law the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. The most dramatic change to federal securities laws since the 1930s, the Act radically redesigns federal regulation of public company corporate governance and reporting obligations. It also significantly tightens accountability standards for directors and officers, auditors, securities analysts and legal counsel. Student opinions as to the relative importance of the key provisions of the act will vary. Key provisions in the order of presentation in the text are:
Creation of an Oversight Board
Corporate executive accountability
Non-audit services
Retention of work papers
Auditor rotation
Conflicts of interest
Hiring of auditor
Internal control
Answers to Questions (continued)

Question 1-11
New accounting standards, or changes in standards, can have significant differential effects on companies, investors and creditors, and other interest groups by causing redistribution of wealth.  There also is the possibility that standards could harm the economy as a whole by causing companies to change their behavior.
Question 1-12
The FASB undertakes a series of elaborate information gathering steps before issuing an accounting standards update to determine consensus as to the preferred method of accounting, as well as to anticipate adverse economic consequences.
Question 1-13
The purpose of the conceptual framework is to guide the Board in developing accounting standards by providing an underlying foundation and basic reasoning on which to consider merits of alternatives.  The framework does not prescribe GAAP.
Question 1-14
Relevance and faithful representation are the primary qualitative characteristics that make information decision-useful.  Relevant information will possess predictive and/or confirmatory value.  Faithful representation is the extent to which there is agreement between a measure or description and the phenomenon it purports to represent. 
Question 1-15
The components of relevant information are predictive and/or confirmatory value.  The components of faithful representation are completeness, neutrality, and free from material error.
Question 1-16
The benefit from providing accounting information is increased decision usefulness.  If the information is relevant and possesses faithful representation, it will improve the decisions made by investors and creditors.  However, there are costs to providing information that include costs to gather, process, and disseminate that information.  There also are costs to users in interpreting the information as well as possible adverse economic consequences that could result from disclosing information.  Information should not be provided unless the benefits exceed the costs.

Answers to Questions (continued)

Question 1-17
Information is material if it is deemed to have an effect on a decision made by a user.  The threshold for materiality will depend principally on the relative dollar amount of the transaction being considered.  One consequence of materiality is that GAAP need not be followed in measuring and reporting a transaction if that transaction is not material.  The threshold for materiality has been left to subjective judgment.
Question 1-18
1. Assets are probable future economic benefits obtained or controlled by a particular entity as a result of past transactions or events.
2. Liabilities are probable future sacrifices of economic benefits arising from present obligations of a particular entity to transfer assets or provide services to other entities in the future as a result of past transactions.
3. Equity is the residual interest in the assets of any entity that remains after deducting its liabilities.
4. Investments by owners are increases in equity resulting from transfers of resources, usually cash, to a company in exchange for ownership interest.
5. Distributions to owners are decreases in equity resulting from transfers to owners. 
6. Revenues are inflows of assets or settlements of liabilities from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or other activities that constitute the entity’s ongoing major or central operations.
7. Expenses are outflows or other using up of assets or incurrences of liabilities during a period from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or other activities that constitute the entity’s ongoing major or central operations.
8. Gains are defined as increases in equity from peripheral or incidental transactions of an entity.
9. Losses represent decreases in equity arising from peripheral or incidental transactions of an entity.
10. Comprehensive income is defined as the change in equity of an entity during a period from nonowner transactions.
Question 1-19
The four basic assumptions underlying GAAP are (1) the economic entity assumption, (2) the going concern assumption, (3) the periodicity assumption, and (4) the monetary unit assumption.
Question 1-20
The going concern assumption means that, in the absence of information to the contrary, it is anticipated that a business entity will continue to operate indefinitely.  This assumption is important to many broad and specific accounting principles such as the historical cost principle.
Answers to Questions (continued)
Question 1-21
The periodicity assumption relates to needs of external users to receive timely financial information.  This assumption requires that the economic life of a company be divided into artificial periods for financial reporting. Companies usually report to external users at least once a year.

Question 1-22
The four key broad accounting principles that guide accounting practice are (1) the historical cost or original transaction value principle, (2) the realization or revenue recognition principle, (3) the matching principle, and (4) the full disclosure principle.

Question 1-23
Two important reasons to base valuation on historical cost are (1) historical cost provides important cash flow information since it represents the cash or cash equivalent paid for an asset or received in exchange for the assumption of a liability, and (2) historical cost valuation is the result of an exchange transaction between two independent parties and the agreed upon exchange value is, therefore, objective and possesses a high degree of verifiability.

Question 1-24
The realization principle requires that two criteria be satisfied before revenue can be recognized:
1. The earnings process is judged to be complete or virtually complete, and,
2. There is reasonable certainty as to the collectibility of the asset to be received (usually cash).

Answers to Questions (concluded)
Question 1-25
The four different approaches to implementing the matching principle are:
1. Recognizing an expense based on an exact cause-and-effect relationship between a revenue and expense event.  Cost of goods sold is an example of an expense recognized by this approach.
2. Recognizing an expense by identifying the expense with the revenues recognized in a specific time period.  Office salaries is an example of an expense recognized by this approach.
3. Recognizing an expense by a systematic and rational allocation to specific time periods.  Depreciation is an example of an expense recognized by this approach.
4. Recognizing expenses in the period incurred, without regard to related revenues.  Advertising is an example of an expense recognized by this approach.

Question 1-26
In addition to the financial statement elements arrayed in the basic financial statements, information is disclosed by means of parenthetical or modifying comments, notes, and supplemental financial statements.
Question 1-27
GAAP prioritizes the inputs companies should use when determining fair value.  The highest and most desirable inputs, Level 1, are quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.  Level 2 inputs are other than quoted prices that are observable including quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active or inactive markets and inputs that are derived principally from observable related market data.  Level 3 inputs, the least desirable, are inputs that reflect the entity’s own assumptions about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on the best information available in the circumstances. 
BRIEF EXERCISES

Brief Exercise 1-1
Revenues ($340,000 + 60,000) $400,000
Expenses:
   Rent ($40,000  2) (20,000)
   Salaries (120,000)
   Utilities ($50,000 + 2,000)  (52,000)
      Net income $208,000

Brief Exercise 1-2
(1) Liabilities
(2) Assets
(3) Revenues
(4) Losses
Brief Exercise 1-3
1. The periodicity assumption
2. The economic entity assumption
3. The realization (revenue recognition) principle
4. The matching principle
Brief Exercise 1-4
1. The matching principle
2. The historical cost (original transaction value) principle
3. The economic entity assumption
Brief Exercise 1-5
1. Disagree The full disclosure principle
2. Agree The periodicity assumption
3. Disagree The matching principle
4. Agree The realization (revenue recognition) principle 
EXERCISES
Exercise 1-1
Requirement 1

Pete, Pete, and Roy
Operating Cash Flow
Year 1 Year 2
Cash collected $160,000 $190,000
Cash disbursements:
  Salaries (90,000) (100,000)
  Utilities (30,000) (40,000)
  Purchase of insurance policy (60,000)      - 0 -    
      Net operating cash flow $(20,000) $ 50,000
Requirement 2

Pete, Pete, and Roy
Income Statements
Year 1 Year 2
Revenues $170,000 $220,000
Expenses:
  Salaries (90,000) (100,000)
  Utilities (35,000) (35,000)
  Insurance (20,000) (20,000)
          Net Income $ 25,000 $ 65,000
         
Requirement 3
Year 1: Amount billed to customers $170,000
 Less: Cash collected (160,000)
     Ending accounts receivable $  10,000

Year 2: Beginning accounts receivable $  10,000
 Plus: Amounts billed to customers  220,000
$230,000
 Less: Cash collected (190,000)
   Ending accounts receivable $  40,000

Exercise 1-2
Requirement 1

Year 2 Year 3
Revenues $350,000 $450,000
Expenses:
  Rent ($80,000  2) (40,000) (40,000)
  Salaries (140,000) (160,000)
  Travel and entertainment (30,000) (40,000)
  Advertising (25,000) (20,000)*
          Net Income $115,000 $190,000
         
Requirement 2
Amount owed at the end of year one $  5,000
Advertising costs incurred in year two  25,000
30,000
Amount paid in year two (15,000)
Liability at the end of year two 15,000
Less cash paid in year three (35,000)
Advertising expense in year three $20,000*














Exercise 1-3
Requirement 1
FASB ASC 820: “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures”
Requirement 2
The specific citation that describes the information that companies must disclose about the use of fair value to measure assets and liabilities for recurring measurements is FASB ASC 820–10–50–2: “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures-Overall-Disclosures.”

Requirement 3
The disclosure requirements are:

a. The fair value measurements at the reporting date
b. The level within the fair value hierarchy in which the fair value measurements in their entirety fall, segregating fair value measurements using any of the following:
1.  Quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
     (Level 1).
2.  Significant other observable inputs (Level 2).
3.  Significant unobservable inputs (Level 3).
c. For fair value measurements using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3), a reconciliation of the beginning and ending balances, separately presenting changes during the period attributable to any of the following:
1.  Total gains and losses for the period (realized and unrealized), segregating 
    those gains or losses included in earnings (or changes in net assets) are 
              reported in the statement of income (or activities).
2.  Purchases, sales, issuances, and settlements (net).
3.  Transfers in and/or out of Level 3 (for example, transfers due to changes in
              the observability of significant inputs).
d. The amount of the total gains or losses for the period in (c)(1) included in earnings (or changes in net assets) that are attributable to the change in unrealized gains and losses relating to those assets and liabilities still held at the reporting date and a description of where those unrealized gains and losses are reported in the statement of income (or activities).
e. In annual periods only, the valuation technique(s) used to measure fair value and a discussion of changes in valuation techniques, if any, during the period.

Exercise 1-4

The FASB Accounting Standards Codification represents the single source of authoritative U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The specific citation for each of the following items is:

1. The topic number for business combinations:

FASB ASC 805: “Business Combinations.”

2. The topic number for related party disclosures:

FASB ASC 850: “Related Party Disclosures.”

3. The topic, subtopic, and section number for the initial measurement of internal-use software:

 FASB ASC 350–40–30: “Intangibles–Goodwill and Other–Internal–Use Software–Initial Measurement.”

4. The topic, subtopic, and section number for the subsequent measurement of asset retirement obligations: 

FASB ASC 410–20–35: “Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations–Asset Retirement Obligations–Subsequent Measurement.”

5. The topic, subtopic, and section number for the recognition of stock compensation:

 FASB ASC 718–10–25: “Compensation–Stock Compensation–Overall–Recognition.”

Exercise 1-5
            Organization Group
1. Securities and Exchange Commission Users
2. Financial Executives International Preparers
3. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Auditors
4. Institute of Management Accountants Preparers
5. Association of Investment Management and Research Users

Exercise 1-6

1. Liability
2. Distribution to owners
3. Revenue
4. Assets, liabilities and equity
5. Comprehensive income
6. Gain
7. Loss
8. Equity
9. Asset
10. Net income
11. Investment by owner
12. Expense

Exercise 1-7
List A List B

  o   1. Predictive value a. Decreases in equity resulting from transfers to owners.
  h   2. Relevance b. Requires consideration of the costs and value of information.
  g   3. Timeliness c. Important for making interfirm comparisons.
  a   4. Distribution to owners d. Applying the same accounting practices over time.
  j     5. Confirmatory value e. Users understand the information in the context of the 
decision being made.
    e     6. Understandability f. Agreement between a measure and the phenomenon it purports to represent.
  n   7. Gain g. Information is available prior to the decision.
  f   8. Faithful representation h. Pertinent to the decision at hand.
  k   9. Comprehensive income i. Implies consensus among different measurers.
  p   10. Materiality j. Information confirms expectations.
  c   11. Comparability k. The change in equity from nonowner transactions.
  m   12. Neutrality l. The process of admitting information into financial statements.
  l     13. Recognition m. The absence of bias.
  d   14. Consistency n. Results if an asset is sold for more than its book value.
  b   15. Cost effectiveness o. Information is useful in predicting the future.
  i   16. Verifiability p. Concerns the relative size of an item and its effect on decisions.
Exercise 1-8

1. Materiality
2. Neutrality
3. Consistency
4. Timeliness
5. Predictive value and/or confirmatory value
6. Faithful Representation
7. Comparability
8. Cost effectiveness

Exercise 1-9
List A List B

  d   1. Matching principle a. The enterprise is separate from its owners and other entities.
  g   2. Periodicity b. A common denominator is the dollar.
  e     3. Historical cost principle c. The entity will continue indefinitely.
  i   4. Materiality d. Record expenses in the period the related revenue is recognized.
  h   5. Realization principle e. The original transaction value upon acquisition.
  c   6. Going concern assumption f. All information that could affect decisions should be reported.
  b   7. Monetary unit assumption g. The life of an enterprise can be divided into artificial time periods.
  a   8. Economic entity assumption h. Criteria usually satisfied at point of sale.
  f   9. Full-disclosure principle i. Concerns the relative size of an item and its effect on decisions.
Exercise 1-10

1. The economic entity assumption
2. The periodicity assumption
3. The matching principle (also the going concern assumption)
4. The historical cost (original transaction value) principle
5. The realization (revenue recognition) principle
6. The going concern assumption
7. Materiality

Exercise 1-11

1. The historical cost (original transaction value) principle
2. The periodicity assumption
3. The realization (revenue recognition) principle
4. The economic entity assumption
5. The matching principle; materiality
6. The full disclosure principle


Exercise 1-12

1. Disagree Monetary unit assumption
2. Disagree Full disclosure principle
3. Agree The matching principle
4. Disagree Historical cost (original transaction value) principle
5. Agree Realization (revenue recognition) principle
6. Agree Materiality
7. Disagree Periodicity assumption

Exercise 1-13

1. Disagree This is a violation of the historical cost (original
                             transaction value) principle.
2. Disagree This is a violation of the economic entity assumption.
3. Disagree This is a violation of the realization (revenue recognition)
                             principle.
4. Agree The company is conforming to the matching principle.
5. Agree The company is conforming to the full disclosure principle.
6. Disagree This is a violation of the periodicity assumption.
Exercise 1-14
 Statement Assumption, Principle, Constraint
1. f. Realization principle
2. h. Full-disclosure principle
3. g. Matching principle
4. e. Historical cost principle
5. c. Periodicity assumption
6. a. Economic entity assumption
7. i. Cost effectiveness
8. j. Materiality
9. k. Conservatism
10. b. Going concern assumption
11. d. Monetary unit assumption


Exercise 1-15

1. b
2. d
3. c
4. d
5. b
6. b

CPA / CMA REVIEW QUESTIONS
CPA Exam Questions

1. a. Auditor independence is not a qualitative characteristic.

2. b.   Neutrality is an attribute of faithful representation.

3. b. The FASB is a private body, though the SEC has the ultimate authority to set accounting standards. The FASB does not set auditing standards nor does it consist entirely of the members of the American Institute of CPAs.

4. a. Confirmatory value is an ingredient of the primary quality of relevance.

5. d. Predictive value is an ingredient of relevance.

6. b. Completeness is an ingredient of faithful representation.

7. b. The objective of financial reporting is to provide information that is useful to present and potential investors and creditors and other users in making rational investment, credit and other similar decisions.

8. d. Comprehensive income excludes only owner transactions.
  

CMA Exam Questions
1. b.  Accounting standards in the United States for nongovernmental entities are set primarily by private sector.  The principle standard setters are the FASB and the AICPA’s AcSEC.
2. c.  Verifiability implies a consensus among different measurers.  
3. c.  The four fundamental recognition criteria are: 1) the item meets the definition of an element of financial statements, 2) the item has an attribute measurable with sufficient reliability, 3) the information is relevant, and 4) the information is reliable.  In addition, revenue should be recognized when it is realized or realizable and earned. 
CASES
Judgment Case 1-1
Requirement 1
In the 1934 Securities Act, Congress gave the SEC the job of setting accounting and reporting standards for companies whose securities are publicly traded.  However, the SEC, a government appointed body, always has delegated the task of setting accounting standards to the private sector.  It is important to understand that the SEC delegated only the task, not the power, to set standards.  The power still lies with the SEC.  If the SEC does not agree with a particular standard promulgated by the private sector, it can, and has in the past, required a change in the standard.
Requirement 2
1. SEC employees may not have the expertise necessary to set accounting standards.
2. By delegating to a private sector body, the cost of setting accounting standards is not borne by taxpayers.
3. By delegating to a private sector body, standards may gain greater acceptance than if dictated by a public (government) body.
4. The SEC now has a buffer group between itself and concerned constituents.  The SEC avoids criticism if a mistake is made by the FASB.
Research Case 1-2
Requirement 2
The 1933 Act has two basic objectives:
1. To require that investors be provided with material information concerning securities offered for public sale; and
2. To prevent misrepresentation, deceit, and other fraud in the sale of securities.
Requirement 3
EDGAR: 
EDGAR, the Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval system, performs automated collection, validation, indexing, acceptance, and forwarding of submissions by companies and others who are required by law to file forms with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.  Publicly traded domestic companies use EDGAR to make the majority of their filings.  Form 10-K, or 10-KSB, which includes the annual report, is required to be filed on EDGAR.  Filings by foreign companies are not required to be filed on EDGAR, but some of these companies do so voluntarily.
Research Case 1-3
Requirement 1
The mission of the Financial Accounting Standards Board is to establish and improve standards of financial accounting and reporting for the guidance and education of the public, including issuers, auditors, and users of financial information. 
Requirement 2
Answers to these questions will vary depending on the date the research is conducted.
Requirement 3
The FASB receives many requests for action on various financial accounting and reporting topics from all segments of a diverse constituency, including the SEC. The auditing profession is sensitive to emerging trends in practice, and consequently it is a frequent source of requests. Overall, requests for action include both new topics and suggested review or reconsideration of existing pronouncements.
The FASB is alert to trends in financial reporting through observation of published reports, liaison with interested organizations, and from recommendations from and discussions with the Emerging Issues Task Force. In addition, the staff receives many technical inquiries by letter and by telephone, which may provide evidence that a particular topic, or aspect of an existing pronouncement, has become a problem. The FASB also is alert to changes in the financial reporting environment
that may be brought about by new legislation or regulatory decisions.
The Board turns to many other organizations and groups for advice and information on various matters, including its agenda. Among the groups with which liaison is maintained are the Financial Accounting Standards Advisory Council, the Accounting Standards Executive Committee and Auditing Standards Board of the AICPA, and the appropriate committees of such organizations as the Association for Investment Management and Research, Financial Executives Institute, Institute of Management Accountants, and Robert Morris Associates.



.

Research Case 1-4
Requirement 1
The IASB is committed to developing, in the public interest, a single set of high quality, understandable and enforceable global accounting standards that require transparent and comparable information in general purpose financial statements. In addition, the IASB co-operates with national accounting standard-setters to achieve convergence in accounting standards around the world.
Requirement 2
The IASB has 14 Board members, each with one vote.
Requirement 3
The answers to this question will vary depending on the date the research is conducted.  In 2009, the chairman of the IASB was Sir David Tweedie.
Requirement 4
London, United Kingdom

Research Case 1-5
Requirement 2
In 1978, China’s enterprise reform program was initiated.  Prior to 1978, all business enterprises were state owned and run.  Now, China’s companies exhibit a considerable range of ownership structures.  For example, the Contract Responsibility System was introduced to provide financial incentives to both workers and managers of state-owned enterprises.  In addition, many state-owned enterprises were converted into companies with limited liabilities similar to corporations in the United States.
Requirement 3
The author feels that the accounting environment in China differs considerably from what is typically presumed by IAS.  In particular, the lack of independent/professional auditing in China implies that the proposed detailed IAS-based standards may be counterproductive in China.

Communication Case 1-6

In the long run, a company will be able to provide investors with a return only if it can generate a profit.  That is, it must be able to use the resources provided by investors and creditors to generate cash receipts from selling a product or service that exceed the cash disbursements necessary to provide that product or service.  If this excess cash can be generated, the marketplace is implicitly saying that society’s resources have been efficiently allocated.  The marketplace is assigning a value to the product or service that exceeds the value assigned to the resources used to produce that product or service.  Pollution costs to society should be borne by the company/individual causing the costs to be incurred.  If they are, and the pollution-causing company can still generate a profit, then society’s resources are still being allocated efficiently.  From this perspective, it appears that information on pollution costs is relevant information to financial statement users.
However, even though this information might be relevant, it would not possess faithful representation.  For example, how could we objectively measure the costs to society of dumping hazardous waste into a river?  Fish and other river-life will die, drinking water will contain more pollutants, and the river will be a less desirable place for recreation.  Some of these costs can be quantified (estimated), but others can’t.  
It is important that each student actively participate in the process of arriving at a solution.  Domination by one or two individuals should be discouraged.  Students should be encouraged to contribute to the group discussion by (a) offering information on relevant issues, and (b) clarifying or modifying ideas already expressed, or (c) suggesting alternative direction.


Communication Case 1-7
Suggested Grading Concepts and Grading Scheme:
Content  (70%)
30 Briefly outlines the standard setting process.
Role of FASB, SEC.
The process.

20 Explains the meaning of economic consequences.
20 Discusses the need to balance accounting
considerations and economic consequences.
70 points

Writing  (30%)
6 Terminology and tone appropriate to the audience of
a business journal.

12 Organization permits ease of understanding.
Introduction that states purpose.
Paragraphs that separate main points.

12 English
Sentences grammatically clear and well organized,
   concise.
Word selection.
Spelling.
Grammar and punctuation.
30 points






Ethics Case 1-8
Discussion should include these elements.

Auditors' Role in Examining Financial Statements:
The function of the auditor is to assure the fairness of financial statements and their compliance with GAAP, not the verification of account correctness.  As some items in financial statements are the result of estimates, auditors are unable to provide an opinion as to the exactness of an entity's financial position.  Auditing Standards suggest that "present fairly" correlates to presenting financial information that is believable, reliable, and not misleading to users of the financial statements. 
An auditor must provide an independent opinion on an entity's financial statements even though the entity pays the audit fee and the audit company performs other services such as the preparation of tax returns.  Sarbanes-Oxley significantly restricts the additional services that an auditor can perform for an audit client.

Who is affected?

Auditors
Company management
Company employees and labor unions
Current and future shareholders
Creditors
Financial analysts
Government entities
Society in general

Ethical Values:
Ethical values pertaining to auditor responsibility include honesty, integrity, and service to the public, lack of bias, independence in attitude as well as appearance, and quality of work in conducting the audit. The AICPA and most state Rules of Conduct demand these qualities of public auditors. 
Ethics Case 1-8 (concluded)

Ethical issues or challenges:
1. Pressure from management to bias the audit opinion by threatening to withhold audit fee payment, to hire another audit firm, or to assign tax preparation work to another audit firm.
2. Pressure from management to bias the audit opinion by providing an expensive gift or an outright bribe to the auditor.  Auditors should refuse all but nominal gifts from their clients.
3. Pressure to bias the audit opinion in favor of the client because the auditor, or family member, has a financial interest in the client beyond the audit fee.  The interest could be in the form of an investment or a loan to or from the client.
4. Pressure to bias the audit opinion in favor of the client because the auditor, or family member, has current or future employment or is in a position of influence with the client. 
5. An unfavorable opinion may provoke a lawsuit by investors and other injured parties against both the company and the auditors.  Fear of litigation may prompt the auditors to give a favorable or clean opinion, when misleading information exists in the financial statements.

Judgment Case 1-9
The two primary qualitative characteristics of accounting information are relevance and faithful representation.  However, these qualities often can conflict, requiring a trade-off between various degrees of relevance and faithful representation.  A forecast of a financial variable may possess a high degree of relevance to investors and creditors.  However, a forecast necessarily contains subjectivity in the estimation of future events.  Since a forecast is involved, information could be more easily biased and may contain material errors.  Therefore, generally accepted accounting principles do not require companies to provide forecasts of any financial variables.
Judgment Case 1-10
Requirement 1
Mary will be able to compare the financial statements due to the existence of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).  These are a dynamic set of both broad and specific guidelines that companies should follow when measuring and reporting the information in their financial statements and related notes.
Requirement 2
Auditors examine financial statements to express an opinion on their compliance with GAAP.
Judgment Case 1-11
Requirement 1
The desired benefit is that the new standard will provide a better set of information to external users.  This will then increase the efficiency of the resource allocation process.  Better is defined by the FASB in terms of an appropriate combination of relevance and faithful representation.
Requirement 2
The costs could include increased information-gathering, processing and dissemination costs to the companies affected, increased interpreting costs to users, and adverse economic consequences to the companies, their investors, creditors, employees, other interest groups as well as to society as a whole.
Requirement 3
The FASB undertakes a series of elaborate information gathering steps before issuing a substantive accounting standard.  These steps include open hearings, deliberations, and requests for written comments.  These steps provide information to the FASB as to the possible benefits and costs of the new standard.
Judgment Case 1-12
Requirement 1
The realization principle requires that two criteria be satisfied before revenue can be recognized:
1. The earnings process is judged to be complete or virtually complete.
2. There is reasonable certainty as to the collectibility of the asset to be received (which is usually cash).
Requirement 2
Disagree.  The second criterion necessary for revenue recognition has been satisfied.  However, the earnings process is not complete.  Revenue should be recognized over the rental period, not at the beginning of the period.

Analysis Case 1-13
Requirement 1
The term matched with revenues means that an attempt is made to recognize expenses in the same period as the related revenues.  Implicit in this definition is a cause-and-effect relationship between revenue and expense.  However, difficulties arise in trying to identify cause-and-effect relationships.  Many expenses are not directly incurred because of a revenue event.
Requirement 2
The four different approaches to implementing the matching principle are:
1. Recognizing an expense based on an exact cause-and-effect relationship between a revenue and expense event.  Cost of goods sold is an example of an expense recognized by this approach.
2. Recognizing an expense by identifying the expense with the revenues recognized in a specific time period.  Office salaries is an example of an expense recognized by this approach.
3. Recognizing an expense by a systematic and rational allocation to specific time periods.  Depreciation is an example of an expense recognized by this approach.
4. Recognizing expenses in the period incurred, without regard to related revenues.  Advertising is an example of an expense recognized by this approach.
Analysis Case 1-13 (concluded)
Requirement 3
a. The cost of producing a product - 1.
b. The cost of advertising - 4.
c. The cost of monthly rent on the office building - 2.
d. The salary of an office employee - 2.
e. Depreciation on an office building - 3.

Judgment Case 1-14
Requirement 1
The key factor is whether or not the expenditure creates a benefit beyond the current period.  If it does, then the expenditure should be capitalized and expensed in future periods when the benefits from that asset are realized.  For example, if the expenditure is for the purchase of a machine that will be used for five years to produce products, the expenditure creates future benefits and should be capitalized.
On the other hand, if the expenditure is for this month’s rent, no benefits beyond the current period are created and the expenditure should be expensed now.
Requirement 2
The key accounting principle related to this decision is the matching principle, which states that expenses are recognized in the same period as the related revenues.
 Requirement 3
Yes, the materiality constraint.  If an expenditure creates a benefit beyond the current period but the amount is below the materiality threshold, companies often expense rather than capitalize.

Real World Case 1-15
Requirement 1
a. Total net revenues = $ 14,526 million
b. Total operating expenses = $   3,899 million
c. Net income (earnings) = $      967 million
d. Total assets = $   7,564 million
e. Total stockholders' equity = $   4,387 million
Requirement 2
The balance sheet reports 1,105 million shares of common stock issued as of January 31, 2009.
Requirement 3
The presentation of more than one year facilitates the ability of investors and creditors to compare the profitability of the company over time.  This, in turn, provides important information for predicting future results.